the irritant should precede action of the unconditional; Bilious pigments - bilirubin and биливердин give to bile specific yellowy-brown colouring. In a liver, a spleen and a marrow there is a destruction эритроцитов and haemoglobin. In the beginning from broken up гема bilirubin is formed биливердин, and then. Further together with fiber in the form not dissolved in water bilirubin with blood is transported in a liver. There, having incorporated with глюкуроновой and a chamois acids, it forms water-soluble конъюгаты which are allocated with hepatic cages in a bilious channel and in a duodenal gut where from конъюгата under the influence of intestines microflora отщепляется глюкуроновая acid and is formed стеркобилин, giving калу corresponding colouring, and after всасывания of intestines in blood, and then in urine - уробилин, painting urine in yellow colour. At defeat of cages of a liver, for example, at an infectious hepatitis or corking of bilious channels by stones or a tumour, in blood bilious pigments collect, appears yellow ркраска склер and skin. In norm the bilirubin maintenance in blood makes 0,2-1,2 mg of %, or 3,5 19 mkmol/l (if 2-3 mg of % there are more, there is a jaundice). Vozduhonosnye ways: the nose cavity, a nasopharynx, a throat, a trachea, bronchial tubes besides the gas-transport carry out variety of other functions. In them there is a warming, humidifying, air clarification, regulation of its volume at the expense of ability of small bronchial tubes to change the gleam, and also рецепция flavouring and olfactory irritants.